Rice

Rice is the most important cereal crop for Bhutan. It supplies 53% of dietary energy in the Bhutanese diet. However, the country is only 45% self-sufficient and the remaining requirement is met through imported rice, mainly from India. Most rice grown in Bhutan is for private consumption or is sold within Bhutan. Only 7 MT was exported in 2014, compared to 1787 MT that was imported in the same year.

Rice is grown from the tropical lowlands (200 m asl) in the south up to warm temperate regions in the north (2700 m asl). As of 2013 the most important rice-growing areas are Samtse (5,682 hectares), followed by Punakha (5,074) and Wangdi Phodrang (4,202 hectares). Farmers grow mainly Bhutanese modern varieties like Bajo Maap 1 and 2, Bajo Kaap 1 and 2, Yusi Ray Maap and Yusi Ray Kaap.

There are diverse pests and diseases on rice in Bhutan. However, insect pests do not require any specific management, or do so only locally and rarely. One possible exception is armyworm which has severe outbreaks in some years. Insect problems can be minimised, and yields maximized by:

  • Regular pest monitoring as most pests only have occasional, local outbreaks
  • Using correct plant spacing
  • Best practice application of fertilisers: split application through the year. Don’t over apply.
  • Avoiding the use of insecticides. There are diverse natural enemies that normally are sufficient to keep natural enemies in check.
  • Cultural control practices

The only serious disease is rice blast which caused major losses in the mid-1990s. The absence of further widespread outbreaks may be due to both the rarity of the required climate conditions and shifts to more resistant rice varieties.

One aquatic weed, shochum, is particularly important in rice as it can not easily be managed using existing weed management practices. Rice paddies are also prone to damage from wild pigs.



Insects

Hoppers on rice

Several species of Cicadellid and Delphacid bugs Crop: Rice Why is it ...
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Rice stem-borers

Four moth species Crop: Rice Why is it a problem? There are ...
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Rice leaf folder

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Crop: Rice Why is it a problem? The rice leaf ...
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Rice caseworm

Parapoynx stagnalis Crop: Rice Why is it a problem? This leaf-feeding moth ...
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Armyworm

Pseudaletia separata (or Mythimna separata)        Crops: Rice, maize, wheat and buckwheat Why ...
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Diseases

Rice blast

Pyricularia oryzae   Crop: Rice Why is it a problem? Severe epidemics of ...
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Rice sheath blight

Thanatephorus cucumeris (or Rhizoctonia solani)   Crop: Rice Why is it a problem? ...
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Vertebrate Pests (Wildlife)

Wild boars

Sus scrofa Crops: All crops, but especially maize, rice and potato Why ...
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Weeds

Shochum

Potamogeton distinctus Crop: Rice   Why is it a problem? Potamogeton distinctus, ...
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Weeds in paddy

Why is it a problem? Rice is the staple diet of the ...
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Additional Resources

Pictorial guide to Pest and Diseases of Rice, Maize and Potato


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